Education as a Necessity of Life (Chapter 1 of Democracy and Education)

[この記事は、デューイ『民主主義と教育』(John. Dewey (1916) Democracy and Education. を読む授業のためのものです。目次ページはhttp://yanaseyosuke.blogspot.jp/2013/09/john-dewey-1916-democracy-and-education.htmlです。]

以下、引用はProject Gutenbergからしますが、つけられたページ番号はDover editionのページ番号です。なおProject Gutenbergにはイタリックやボールドなどの強調が抜けていますので、それらは適宜Dover editionから補いました。



第一章 生きるために必要なものとしての教育
Chapter One: Education as a Necessity of Life


1. 伝達による生命の再創造 (Renewal of Life by Transmission)

■ 生きること (life) は、オートポイエーシスを特徴とする。

The most notable distinction between living and inanimate things is that the former maintain themselves by renewal. (p. 1)



■ 成長する (to grow) とは、エネルギーを使って環境に対して働きかけ、使用したエネルギー以上の見返り、すなわち自己の再創造 (to renew) を可能にすること。

As long as it endures, it struggles to use surrounding energies in its own behalf. It uses light, air, moisture, and the material of soil. To say that it uses them is to say that it turns them into means of its own conservation. As long as it is growing, the energy it expends in thus turning the environment to account is more than compensated for by the return it gets: it grows. Understanding the word "control" in this sense, it may be said that a living being is one that subjugates and controls for its own continued activity the energies that would otherwise use it up.  (p.1)

⇒ 環境との関わり、大きく言うなら生態学的視点が登場していることに注意。なお、"to renew"は、単なる自己複製ではなく、変化する環境への(再)適合であるという点を強調するため「再創造」と訳し、「再生」や「更新」といった訳語は使用しなかった。

■ 生命 (life) とは、環境に働きかけ自己を再創造する過程である。

Life is a self-renewing process through action upon the environment. (p.1)


■ 生きることの連続性 (continuity of life) とは、生命体の必要に応じて、環境を自らに適うように適合し続けることである。

Continuity of life means continual readaptation of the environment to the needs of living organisms. (p. 2)

■ ここでの「生きること」 (life) とは、狭義の生理学的な意味だけに限らない広義のもので、個人や民族が経験する習慣・機関・信条・勝敗・余暇・職業なども意味する。

We have been speaking of life in its lowest terms - as a physical thing. But we use the word "Life" to denote the whole range of experience, individual and racial. ...  "Life" covers customs, institutions, beliefs, victories and defeats, recreations and occupations. (p. 2)


■ 「経験」 (experience) も広く豊かな意味で使われるが、経験も生きることと同じように、再創造し続けることで連続する。

We employ the word "experience" in the same pregnant sense. And to it, as well as to life in the bare physiological sense, the principle of continuity through renewal applies. (p. 2)

■ 人が生き続ければ、その人の信条・希望・幸福・不幸・実践も再創造される。同じことは社会集団についても言える。

With the renewal of physical existence goes, in the case of human beings, the recreation of beliefs, ideals, hopes, happiness, misery, and practices. The continuity of any experience, through renewing of the social group, is a literal fact. (p. 2)


■ 広義の教育とは、社会的に生き続けることである。個体は死んでも社会集団は生き続ける。

Education, in its broadest sense, is the means of this social continuity of life. Every one of the constituent elements of a social group, in a modern city as in a savage tribe, is born immature, helpless, without language, beliefs, ideas, or social standards. Each individual, each unit who is the carrier of the life-experience of his group, in time passes away. Yet the life of the group goes on. (p. 2)

⇒ 教育の定義に社会性が強調されていることに注意。

■ 教育が必要とされるのは、社会集団のメンバーが生まれやがては死なざるを得ないからである。無知で無能な生誕者に年長者の知識と技能を伝えない限り、生誕者は死に、社会集団は生きることができなくなる。

The primary ineluctable facts of the birth and death of each one of the constituent members in a social group determine the necessity of education. On one hand, there is the contrast between the immaturity of the new-born members of the group - its future sole representatives - and the maturity of the adult members who possess the knowledge and customs of the group. On the other hand, there is the necessity that these immature members be not merely physically preserved in adequate numbers, but that they be initiated into the interests, purposes, information, skill, and practices of the mature members: otherwise the group will cease its characteristic life.  (pp. 2-3)

⇒ 教育は社会にとっても個人にとっても必要。

■ 文明社会では、生誕者の無知と無能と年長者の知識と技能の差は大きい。生誕者は知識と技能を有しないだけでなく関心ももたない場合があるので、意図的な教育が必要となる。

Even in a savage tribe, the achievements of adults are far beyond what the immature members would be capable of if left to themselves. With the growth of civilization, the gap between the original capacities of the immature and the standards and customs of the elders increases. Mere physical growing up, mere mastery of the bare necessities of subsistence will not suffice to reproduce the life of the group. Deliberate effort and the taking of thoughtful pains are required. Beings who are born not only unaware of, but quite indifferent to, the aims and habits of the social group have to be rendered cognizant of them and actively interested. Education, and education alone, spans the gap. (p. 3)

⇒ 教育の必要性を年少者が自覚しない場合もあることに注意。

■ 生物と同じように社会も伝達を繰り返すことにより存在を維持できる。社会の場合の伝達とはコミュニケーションであり、年長者は年少者に行為・思考・感情の習慣をコミュニケーションで伝える。

Society exists through a process of transmission quite as much as biological life. This transmission occurs by means of communication of habits of doing, thinking, and feeling from the older to the younger. Without this communication of ideals, hopes, expectations, standards, opinions, from those members of society who are passing out of the group life to those who are coming into it, social life could not survive. (p. 3)

⇒行為・思考・感情の習慣をコミュニケーションで伝える、ということはどういうことだろう? この場合のコミュニケーションは単なる情報伝達ではないことは間違いないだろうが、それではコミュニケーションとは何だろう?(ウィトゲンシュタインの「言語ゲーム」や「生活様式」の概念を想起しよう)。

2. 教育とコミュニケーション (Education and Communication)

■ 社会は、伝達とコミュニケーションを手段として必要とするだけではない。社会は、伝達とコミュニケーションの中に存在する。

Society not only continues to exist by transmission, by communication, but it may fairly be said to exist in transmission, in communication. (p. 4)


N.ルーマン著、馬場靖雄・赤堀三郎・菅原謙・高橋徹訳 (2009) 『社会の社会 1』法政大学出版局
N.ルーマン著、馬場靖雄・赤堀三郎・菅原謙・高橋徹訳 (2009) 『社会の社会 2』法政大学出版局

■ 共有 (common)、共同体 (community)、コミュニケーション (communication)には、本質的なつながりがある。共有ゆえに共同体があり、人はコミュニケーションにより共有をする。共有するのはモノ(物質的対象)だけでなくコト(心理的対象)でもある。

There is more than a verbal tie between the words common, community, and communication. Men live in a community in virtue of the things which they have in common; and communication is the way in which they come to possess things in common. What they must have in common in order to form a community or society are aims, beliefs, aspirations, knowledge - a common understanding - like-mindedness as the sociologists say. (p. 4)

⇒ 「共有」については下記を参照。
マイケル・ハート、アントニオ・ネグリ著、幾島幸子・古賀祥子訳、水嶋一憲監修 (2012) 『コモンウェルス (上)(下)』 NHK出版


■ 共通理解 (common understanding) を伝達することを、物理的な移送と同じように考えることはできない。コミュニケーションとは、共通理解に参加することであり、そこで人は他人と同じような情動的・知的性向 (emotional and intellectual dispositions) を獲得することができる。

Such things [=aims, beliefs, aspirations, knowledge - a common understanding - like-mindedness] cannot be passed physically from one to another, like bricks; they cannot be shared as persons would share a pie by dividing it into physical pieces. The communication which insures participation in a common understanding is one which secures similar emotional and intellectual dispositions - like ways of responding to expectations and requirements. (p. 4)


■ 人々が物理的に近くにいるだけで社会集団が構成されるわけではない。

Persons do not become a society by living in physical proximity, any more than a man ceases to be socially influenced by being so many feet or miles removed from others. A book or a letter may institute a more intimate association between human beings separated thousands of miles from each other than exists between dwellers under the same roof.  (p. 4)


■ 人々がある結果を目指して共に働いてもそれだけで社会集団が構成されるわけではない。目指す到達点を共有し、コミュニケーションによってそれぞれの行いを調整し共同体を構成してこそ社会集団ができる。

Individuals do not even compose a social group because they all work for a common end. The parts of a machine work with a maximum of cooperativeness for a common result, but they do not form a community. If, however, they were all cognizant of the common end and all interested in it so that they regulated their specific activity in view of it, then they would form a community. But this would involve communication. Each would have to know what the other was about and would have to have some way of keeping the other informed as to his own purpose and progress. Consensus demands communication.  (p. 5)


■ 社会集団と言われるものの中でも、まだ十分に社会的でない集団はある。

We are thus compelled to recognize that within even the most social group there are many relations which are not as yet social. A large number of human relationships in any social group are still upon the machine-like plane. Individuals use one another so as to get desired results, without reference to the emotional and intellectual disposition and consent of those used. Such uses express physical superiority, or superiority of position, skill, technical ability, and command of tools, mechanical or fiscal. So far as the relations of parent and child, teacher and pupil, employer and employee, governor and governed, remain upon this level, they form no true social group, no matter how closely their respective activities touch one another. Giving and taking of orders modifies action and results, but does not of itself effect a sharing of purposes, a communication of interests. (p. 5)

⇒ 社会の概念にコミュニケーションが必要とされていることに注意。

■ 社会生活とはコミュニケーションであり、コミュニケーション(つまりは社会生活)は教育的である。



Not only is social life identical with communication, but all communication (and hence all genuine social life) is educative. To be a recipient of a communication is to have an enlarged and changed experience. One shares in what another has thought and felt and in so far, meagerly or amply, has his own attitude modified. Nor is the one who communicates left unaffected. Try the experiment of communicating, with fullness and accuracy, some experience to another, especially if it be somewhat complicated, and you will find your own attitude toward your experience changing; otherwise you resort to expletives and ejaculations. The experience has to be formulated in order to be communicated. To formulate requires getting outside of it, seeing it as another would see it, considering what points of contact it has with the life of another so that it may be got into such form that he can appreciate its meaning. Except in dealing with commonplaces and catch phrases one has to assimilate, imaginatively, something of another's experience in order to tell him intelligently of one's own experience. All communication is like art. It may fairly be said, therefore, that any social arrangement that remains vitally social, or vitally shared, is educative to those who participate in it. Only when it becomes cast in a mold and runs in a routine way does it lose its educative power. (pp. 5-6)

■ 共に生きること(living together)が、教育なのだ。



In final account, then, not only does social life demand teaching and learning for its own permanence, but the very process of living together educates. It enlarges and enlightens experience; it stimulates and enriches imagination; it creates responsibility for accuracy and vividness of statement and thought. A man really living alone (alone mentally as well as physically) would have little or no occasion to reflect upon his past experience to extract its net meaning. The inequality of achievement between the mature and the immature not only necessitates teaching the young, but the necessity of this teaching gives an immense stimulus to reducing experience to that order and form which will render it most easily communicable and hence most usable. (p. 6)

3 制度的教育の地位 (The Place of Formal Education)

■ 教育は、人々が共に生きているだけでもなされるが、文明が進み社会が複合的になるにつれ、制度化された教育 (formal education) が必要になってくる。

But as civilization advances, the gap between the capacities of the young and the concerns of adults widens. Learning by direct sharing in the pursuits of grown-ups becomes increasingly difficult except in the case of the less advanced occupations. Much of what adults do is so remote in space and in meaning that playful imitation is less and less adequate to reproduce its spirit. Ability to share effectively in adult activities thus depends upon a prior training given with this end in view. Intentional agencies -- schools -- and explicit material-- studies -- are devised. The task of teaching certain things is delegated to a special group of persons.

Without such formal education, it is not possible to transmit all the resources and achievements of a complex society. It also opens a way to a kind of experience which would not be accessible to the young, if they were left to pick up their training in informal association with others, since books and the symbols of knowledge are mastered.  (p. 8)


■ しかし制度的教育にも危険性がある。制度的な教育では、教示 (instruction)がどこか遠いもの、生命を欠いたもの、抽象的で本の上のことだけになりやすい。その点、生活の中での間接的な教育は個人的で生き生きとしている。

But there are conspicuous dangers attendant upon the transition from indirect to formal education. Sharing in actual pursuit, whether directly or vicariously in play, is at least personal and vital. These qualities compensate, in some measure, for the narrowness of available opportunities. Formal instruction, on the contrary, easily becomes remote and dead -- abstract and bookish, to use the ordinary words of depreciation. What accumulated knowledge exists in low grade societies is at least put into practice; it is transmuted into character; it exists with the depth of meaning that attaches to its coming within urgent daily interests. (p. 8)

⇒制度的教育、わかりやすくいうなら学校教育を手放しで礼賛しているわけではないことに注意。なお、"instruction"は、"to furnish with knowledge, especially by a systematic method; to furnish with orders or directions; to furnish with information"といった意味(Dictionary.com)をもつ語として、「教示」と訳した。

■ 制度的教育は、学びの多くが記号 (symbols) を通じてなされるので、現実世界と遊離しがちである。


しかし文化が発達すると、学ぶ内容の多くは、記号で表現されるようになる。これは、生活で馴染んだ行為や対象物への翻訳とはまったく異なっている。このような題材はどちらかと言えば技術的で表面的である。日常的な現実の基準からすれば、人工的である。日常的な現実の基準とは、実践的な関心とのつながりだからである。このような題材は、日常的な思考や表現に吸収されることなく、それ自体だけでこの世に存在している。制度的教示の題材は、単なる学校の教科内容 (subject matter)となり、生きることの上での経験の主題的内容 (subject matter) から切り離されてしまうという危険は常にある。制度的教示では、変わらぬ社会的な興味が失われてしまいがちである。社会的に生きることの仕組みに入れずに、もっぱら記号で表現される技術的情報としてしかあつかわれない題材が学校では目立つ。かくして一般的な教育観ができあがる。つまり、教育には社会的な必要性があることを無視し、生きているという私たちの意識に影響を与えている人々のつながり (human association)と教育は実は同じであるということも無視する教育観である。教育とは、遠い出来事の情報を与え、学びを言語記号で移送するという教育観、つまりは読み書き能力の習得こそが教育であるとする教育観である。

But in an advanced culture much which has to be learned is stored in symbols. It is far from translation into familiar acts and objects. Such material is relatively technical and superficial. Taking the ordinary standard of reality as a measure, it is artificial. For this measure is connection with practical concerns. Such material exists in a world by itself, unassimilated to ordinary customs of thought and expression. There is the standing danger that the material of formal instruction will be merely the subject matter of the schools, isolated from the subject matter of life-experience. The permanent social interests are likely to be lost from view. Those which have not been carried over into the structure of social life, but which remain largely matters of technical information expressed in symbols, are made conspicuous in schools. Thus we reach the ordinary notion of education: the notion which ignores its social necessity and its identity with all human association that affects conscious life, and which identifies it with imparting information about remote matters and the conveying of learning through verbal signs: the acquisition of literacy.  (pp. 8-9)


■ 教育哲学は、非制度的なあり方と制度的なあり方(言い換えるなら偶発的なあり方と意図的なあり方)の間のバランスをとる方法を見出さねばならない。

Hence one of the weightiest problems with which the philosophy of education has to cope is the method of keeping a proper balance between the informal and the formal, the incidental and the intentional, modes of education. When the acquiring of information and of technical intellectual skill do not influence the formation of a social disposition, ordinary vital experience fails to gain in meaning, while schooling, in so far, creates only "sharps" in learning?that is, egoistic specialists. To avoid a split between what men consciously know because they are aware of having learned it by a specific job of learning, and what they unconsciously know because they have absorbed it in the formation of their characters by intercourse with others, becomes an increasingly delicate task with every development of special schooling. (p. 9)


要約 (Summary)

It is the very nature of life to strive to continue in being. Since this continuance can be secured only by constant renewals, life is a self-renewing process. What nutrition and reproduction are to physiological life, education is to social life. This education consists primarily in transmission through communication. Communication is a process of sharing experience till it becomes a common possession. It modifies the disposition of both the parties who partake in it. That the ulterior significance of every mode of human association lies in the contribution which it makes to the improvement of the quality of experience is a fact most easily recognized in dealing with the immature. That is to say, while every social arrangement is educative in effect, the educative effect first becomes an important part of the purpose of the association in connection with the association of the older with the younger. As societies become more complex in structure and resources, the need of formal or intentional teaching and learning increases. As formal teaching and training grow in extent, there is the danger of creating an undesirable split between the experience gained in more direct associations and what is acquired in school. This danger was never greater than at the present time, on account of the rapid growth in the last few centuries of knowledge and technical modes of skill. (pp. 9-10)


"Democracy and Education"読解のためのブログ記事の目次ページ

追記 (2013/10/12)



デューイの考えが、現在のAASLAにおける社会文化理論の'mediation'やLanguage Socialization Approachの'participation'といった概念に多数反映されているという印象をまず持ちました。古典を読むことで、そもそもなぜ私たちは教育という営みを維持するのか、なぜ私は教育において社会的な要因を排除することが危険だと主張したいのか、という風な反省的思考を巡らせることができるのだと、古典を読むおもしろさと必要性を実感しています。




さて、生徒にこんな質問をされたらすぐさま逃げ出したくなります(笑)。しかし私は、Democracy and Educationのこの章をもって、Deweyに倣い「えっとね、"生きてる"っていうのは"自分が変わっていく"ってことだよ」という1つの答えを持ちました。
  今自分がいる研究室には机や本棚、ライトなどがありますが、人や自然災害などで動かされない限り、それらは半永久的に同じ状態でそこにあります。しかし、人間である私はたった今も変容し続けています。あえて自分を客観視してみると、おそらくこの文章を書いていることで知識の体系が再構成されており、おそらく目の前にいるM2さんによって多少緊張感を保っており、夕方に近づくにつれだんだん腹が減ってきています。あるいは研究室から中庭に飛び出し、木々を主人公にしてみると、彼らは今まだ残っている若干の日光を使って光合成を行っており、地面から一生懸命水を吸い取っているのでしょう。"Life is a self-renewing process through action upon the environment".や"Continuity of life means continual readaptation of the environment to the needs of living organisms."ともあるように、それらの木々はこれから冬がくれば葉を落とすことで環境(冬の寒さ)に適応し、春が訪れれば実をつけて自らの形を変えていくのでしょう。



また、教師の仕事の本質は教えることです。"Try the experiment of communicating, with fullness and accuracy, some experience to another,…and you will find your own attitude toward your experience changing…The experience has to be formulated in order to be communicated. To formulate requires getting outside of it, seeing it as another would see it, considering what points of contact it has with the life of another so that it may be got into such form that he can appreciate its meaning."とも書かれていましたが、教えるためにはこのような作業をしなければいけないので、自らの経験も拡大、変容します。仮にそのことがより人生を豊かにするという価値観をもつのであれば、教師は幸せな職業と言えるかもしれません。


しかしここで注目すべきことは、デューイはコミュニケーションにおいて伝える事柄として行為・思考・感情なども含まれると明記していることではないだろうか。先生のブログに「行為・思考・感情の習慣をコミュニケーションで伝える、ということはどういうことだろう? この場合のコミュニケーションは単なる情報伝達ではないことは間違いないだろうが、それではコミュニケーションとは何だろう?(ウィトゲンシュタインの「言語ゲーム」や「生活様式」の概念を想起しよう)」とあることから、ここからは自分なりにウィトゲンシュタインの概念を使用してコミュニケーションをとらえなおしてみたい(とはいえ私はウィトゲンシュタインをしっかり勉強したわけではないため概念の理解にずれがあったり誤解をしていることも有り得るため、論理が破綻している場合は正していただけると有り難いです…汗)。


ウィトゲンシュタインは「わたくしが根拠づけの委細をつくしたのであれば、わたくしは確固たる地盤に達しているのであり、わたくしの鋤はそりかえってしまう。そのときわたくしは「自分はとにかくこのように行動するのだ」と言いたくなる。 (『探究』第217節)」という記述の中で、規則の無限ループを止めるための「地盤」という考え方を示している。この地盤は「生活様式」と言い換えることができ、「とにかくそうしてるんだよ」としか答えられない領域であると考えられる。生活様式にはデューイが本文中で言及したような「行為・思考・感情」なども含まれるのではないかと私は考える。


授業を受講している院生のコメント抜粋は、下で読めます (ダウンロードも可能です)。

0 件のコメント: